Whitepapers

CSMA vs TDMA

Strengthening Unlicensed Band Wireless Backhaul

When long distance wireless links using standard based Wi-Fi protocol (based on CSMA/CA) are used, it is generally observed that due to the unsyncronized nature of links, performance gets degraded as more number of hops is added. More hops result in more wireless nodes on the same tower/locations. Increased number of nodes on same location results in higher self-interference, collisions, backoffs and retransmissions which lead to a degraded performance.

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PTP/PTMP IP

Radios for Backhaul
to Last Mile

Evolution and expansion of cellular networks and internet has lead to an increased demand for an all-encompassing coverage. To meet these requirements, operators and ISPs must deploy networks rapidly, without losing time-to-market and at the same time ensuring high availability and QoS to their customers.

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ICT service delivery through Rural Entrepreneurship

Almost half the world population living in rural and remote areas has limited or no communication network. A small subscriber base and the high network infrastructure cost have been among the key barriers which have prevented operators from extending service to rural and remote areas.

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Mobile Banking Using USSD

USSD is a communication protocol used to exchange messages between a mobile phone and applications running on the network. It is a messaging service used in Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks similar to SMS, where it sends data utilizing the signaling channel.

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